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50                        THE FATE OF MAN

which rules applicable only to the material are
applied to spirit as well. This is materialism.,
open or disguised. Even those who are defend-
ing liberty against a dictated philosophy are fat
more interested in liberty for their material
appetites than in liberty of the spirit or of con-
science, and this still further compromises the
idea of freedom. Man is reduced to a one-plane
being, and this one-plane being is organized by
one method. In such a one-plane organisation,
material always triumphs over spirit.

This tyrannic, one-plane attitude is not a new
thing, revealed for the first time in Communism
and Fascism: we have far earlier examples. The
idea existed first of all in all the old theocratic
systems which envisaged theophanics in relative
social forms, historically variable. This is almost
universally recognized. But it is interesting to
discover the same " one-plane-ness" which leads
to the imprisonment of the spirit and to tyranny,
even if in a disguised form—to discover the same
thing in the ideology of democracy, in J, J.
Rousseau, in the Jacobins. Jacobin democracy
knows no limitations for the protection of
personal liberty or the independence of the spirit.
Rousseau did not recognize freedom of con-
science. He believed in an obligatory religion
for all citizens and proposed to exile Christians
from his perfect republic. This is a new form of